Pied-billed Grebe


Fairly common year-round at least 4 reservoirs

American White Pelican

Overflight only during migration

Double-crested Cormorant

Uncommon to locally fairly common visitant to the larger reservoirs at least from late winter to mid-spring

Great Blue Heron


Mostly common resident. Rookery east of HQ no longer exists; location of current nest site unknown

Great Egret

Uncommon in late winter and spring (11 Feb-6 Apr) at reservoirs

Green Heron


Observed only during the breeding season, but may occasionally be found at other seasons

Tundra Swan

Overflight only on 28 Feb 93

Snow Goose

Overflight only on 28 Feb 93

Canada Goose


Commonly seen flying over SWA, occasionally lands. Possible nesting on SWA improbable due to disturbance, limited grazing

Wood Duck


Fairly common resident, but uncommon during hunting season, common in early spring

Green-winged Teal

One observation 26 Apr 93 (3 pair) at Pittman Reservoir. At least one previous (unverified) sighting in 1978.



Common at all seasons, except during hunting season when uncommon. Nests at reservoirs, potholes and along creeks

Cinnamon Teal


One observation 31 May 95 (1 male) on Pittman Reservoir.



One observation: a pair on Pittman Reservoir 27 Feb 97

American Wigeon

Two observations: 18 Sep 92 Pittman Res.; 30 Jan 94 (pair) Horseshoe Res. Probably a rare to uncommon migrant


One observation 7 Mar 93 (2) Horseshoe Reservoir. Rare. At least one previous (unverified) observation in 1974-75

Ring-necked Duck

Fairly common in mid-winter to early spring (11 Feb-7 April). Probably third most common duck after MALL and WODU


One observation 22 Mar 93 (2 F) at pothole N of Long Ravine Rd. Probably rare to uncommon.

Common Merganser


Uncommon to locally fairly common at Pittman Res and Dry Creek in winter to mid-spring

Ruddy Duck

Two observations: 28 Feb 93 and 15 July 94 (1 F) Pittman Res. Several previous sightings including mid-May 1974 (Bill Rogers)

Turkey Vulture


Common at all seasons but less numerous during winter. Possible breeder but nest site not known


Migrant only in fall and spring. One perched at swim hole 23 April 1995.

White-tailed Kite


Uncommon to common resident, less often observed in early winter. Forages in more mesic, taller grasslands

Bald Eagle

Fairly common in late winter (11 Feb-6 Mar) mostly in overflight, but does use SWA

Northern Harrier


Fairly common to common in winter, uncommon at other seasons (9 July-12 March, 23 April) except in spring when absent

Sharp-shinned Hawk

Uncommon except during breeding season when absent

Cooper's Hawk


Uncommon to common, most numerous in fall. Uncommon but regular nester in dense live oak woodlands

Red-shouldered Hawk


Found year-round locally in woodland near riparian areas or open water. Nest not yet confirmed

Red-tailed Hawk


Common at all seasons, abundant in winter. Breeding population appears to be saturated with several immature birds

Ferruginous Hawk

Uncommon in winter (8 Nov-8 Apr) in open savannah.

Golden Eagle


Scattered observations from February to late May. Status at other seasons unclear. May nest on or near SWA

American Kestrel


Common resident, but not especially numerous as a breeder


One observation 5 Feb 94 at Jones' Corral; another probable sighting at the same location 29 Nov 93

Prairie Falcon

Uncommon, so far only during spring (7 Mar 94) and fall (18 Oct-9 Nov) migration in the grasslands near Cox Creek

Ring-necked Pheasant


Rare, breeding status not known. Observations from September and Feb-April all near Cox Creek. May increase with enclosure

Wild Turkey


Rare to common resident. Most conspicuous from early spring-summer when they move to lower elevations to breed

California Quail


Fairly common to common resident. Numbers appear to be much below carrying capacity due to hunting pressure

California Gull

One observation 6 March 94 of 250 migrating E over Cox Creek. No other observations of any gull species

Black Rail


First found 1995, (6) found along Cox Creek 23 Sep 1995.

Virginia Rail


No observations prior to 1 Mar 93 at Cox Creek after which they apparently nested and were fairly common thereafter



One heard in pothole in Jones' Excl. 24 Apr 93. Other possible observations, but rare and probably irregular

Common Moorhen


Fairly common breeder, uncommon at other seasons. Nesting confirmed only at Pittman, but probably nests at others

American Coot


Fairly common resident, slightly more numerous than COMO, but so far absent in winter. Young seen by 14 May

Sandhill Crane

Overflight only during spring (Feb-early Mar) and fall (Sep) migration

Northern Bobwhite

One observation 24 Jan 93 along Jones Creek; undoubtedly a bird surviving from field trials



Mostly locally common resident. Nests only on barren or nearly barren areas; young seen as early as 7 April

Greater Yellowlegs

At least an uncommon spring migrant at potholes and flooded or wet areas in the open

Spotted Sandpiper

Two observations: 18 Sep 92 Pittman Reservoir; 9 May 93 on a gravel bar at the Dry Creek swim hole

Common Snipe


Fairly common breeder in wet grasslands, rare at other seasons. I estimated 3-6 territories in 93 and 94

Caspian Tern

One observation 8 July 92 flying over Jones Exclosure. Rare migrant

Rock Dove


Uncommonly seen in small flocks overhead. Not known to nest but observed searching for nest sites at Waldo bridge

Band-tailed Pigeon

Seen in winter-spring 93 and 28 May 94, but movements are erratic and may be seen in numbers in any given year

Mourning Dove


Abundant as a breeder, but uncommon to rare at other seasons

Barn Owl


Found year-round roosting in dense live oaks and almost certainly nests. Pellets had almost all pocket gophers in 93-94

Western Screech-Owl


Probably fairly common resident in oak woodlands; observed regularly at HQ

Great Horned Owl


Common, even abundant, and widespread resident. Nests from open savannah to closed-canopy woodland

Long-eared Owl


Rare breeder, status at other seasons unknown. Nest with 3 young found in 93; did not return to same site in 94

Black Swift

Rare migrant, extremely unlikely but possible breeder at Shingle Falls. Tim Manolis observed a flock of 6 flying N on 28 May 93

Black-chinned Hummingbird


Fairly common breeder in riparian areas. Occupied nest found on branch overhanging Dry Creek

Anna's Hummingbird


Fairly common to common resident and migrant except during late fall-winter when uncommon

Calliope Hummingbird


Two males observed 23 April 1995 feeding on winter vetch. Expected to be a rare to uncommon spring migrant

Rufous Hummingbird

Uncommon spring (7 Mar-8 Apr) and fall (8 Jul-12 Aug) migrant

Belted Kingfisher


Fairly common to common resident in small numbers

Lewis' Woodpecker

Abundant during fall-spring (4 Sep 92-24 May 93) in oak savannah; absent in 93-94; present 94-95; absent 95-96; common 96-97

Acorn Woodpecker


Common to abundant resident. They all but disappeared from occupied areas when many Lewis' Woodpeckers arrived

Red-breasted Sapsucker

Fairly common winter resident (11 Aug-7 Apr), usually in riparian or mesic woodlands

Nuttall's Woodpecker


Common resident mostly in blue oak woodlands but occurs in all wooded habitats

Downy Woodpecker


Fairly common. Probably restricted to riparian areas for nesting and found there predominantly during other seasons

Hairy Woodpecker

One observation of a female 27 Feb 1997 at the confluence of Little Dry Creek and Dry Creek

Northern Flicker


Common when present, but no May or June observations; nest status uncertain

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Uncommon spring migrant. Four observations (14-24 May) all atop prominent snags

Western Wood-Pewee


Fairly common in taller, mixed woodlands. Has maintained local territories each year, but no direct evidence of nesting

Willow Flycatcher

Fairly common late spring (May-Jun) and fall (Aug-Sep) migrant. Potential nesting extremely unlikely

Hammond's Flycatcher

Certain observations 25 April 93 below Pittman Reservoir, 14 Apr 95 (1-2) at Houndog Flat. Probably an uncommon migrant.

Dusky Flycatcher

One certain observation 9 May 93. Probably an uncommon to fairly common migrant

Gray Flycatcher

Probably an uncommon to fairly common migrant. Appeared to be the most numerous of the three migrant-only Empids in 1993

Pacific-slope Flycatcher


Fairly common to locally common. Not confirmed nesting, but birds seen searching for nest sites or nest material

Black Phoebe


Common except in early winter. Nests near or over water and mostly on man-made structures; first egg on 7 March in 94

Say's Phoebe

Fairly common in savannah or woodland clearings especially with many low perches (5 Sep-25 Mar). Roosts at HQ

Ash-throated Flycatcher


Common breeder in oak woodlands, though numbers somewhat limited by a lack of shrubby understory

Western Kingbird


Abundant in savannah, open woodland, and riparian areas with tall trees

Horned Lark


Observed occasionally in overflight; probably used to nest on SWA but no longer because of reduced grazing

Tree Swallow


Common breeder and migrant (29 Jan-18 Oct). Returns early only to most favored semi-colonial nest sites

Violet-green Swallow


Fairly common breeder to abundant migrant (19 Feb-17 Oct) in blue oak woodlands and savannah

N. Rough-winged Swallow


Common breeder but numbers fairly small. Nests locally in eroded, vertical stream banks

Cliff Swallow


Fairly common in spring and summer. Presently known to nest only at Waldo bridge in small numbers

Barn Swallow


Uncommon breeder. Only confirmed nest in culvert under road

Steller's Jay

Irregularly rare to fairly common in winter. Flock of 14 on 27 Feb 1997.

Scrub Jay


Common, but not very numerous as populations are probably limited by a lack of shrub cover

Yellow-billed Magpie


Locally common in oak savannah. Their nests are secondarily important for owls, especially Great Horned Owls

American Crow


Fairly common, local nester in live oaks. Used nests very important for many raptors. Sensitive to human disturbance

Plain Titmouse


Common to abundant resident in oak woodlands. Densities appear higher where live oaks provide winter foraging sites



Common to abundant resident largely due to the many live oaks in which they prefer to both forage and nest

White-breasted Nuthatch


Common resident in blue oak woodlands

Brown Creeper

One observation 9 Nov 92 from a large valley oak along Little Dry Creek. Rare migrant but may also winter

Rock Wren


One 20 Nov - Dec 93; (1) Pittman Rd. 94; (1) Ceanothus Hill 23 Sep 95. An Apr-May 74 record (B. Rogers) suggests past nesting

Bewick's Wren


Common resident in a variety of habitats but always with some shrubby understory

House Wren


Common breeder. Irregularly fairly common in weedy grassland/open riparian areas in winter. Little Dry Creek 27/Feb 97.

Winter Wren

One observation on 9 Dec 94 at base of old Spenceville Rd. bridge at Dry Creek. Included on existing species list

Marsh Wren


Common in winter, so far absent as a breeder

American Dipper


One first observed 25 May 94 below Shingle Falls (elev. 600 ft); pair making food deliveries to nest on 28 May 94; nest 1995

Golden-crowned Kinglet

Observed during fall/winter 93-94 and was fairly common. Expected to be irregularly rare to fairly common

Ruby-crowned Kinglet

Abundant in winter in many woodland types. Late date 14 May 1994

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher


Uncommon to common except in late fall and winter (20 Mar-17 Oct). Parasitized by BHCO, but has nested successfully

Western Bluebird


Fairly common to common resident, but numbers appear to be limited probably by available nest sites and starlings

Mountain Bluebird

Two observations: 1 Mar 93 near Waldo Corral; 8 Nov 94 S of Jones' Corral; apparently does not winter on a regular basis

Hermit Thrush

Common winter resident and migrant. Numbers affected by available fruit

Swainson's Thrush

Four observations from May 94. Perhaps a fairly common spring migrant in dense, moist riparian woodland

American Robin


Common resident. Seasonal movements take them to several habitat types at different parts of the year

Varied Thrush

Rare in winter in dense, shaded woodland; probably common during periodic invasion years. 9 27 Feb 1997.



Very local in dense riparian areas and in successional stages of scrubby live oak woodland

Northern Mockingbird


Fairly common local nester nearly restricted to Pyracantha, though they do nest uncommonly in oak savannah

Sage Thrasher

One observation 30 Jan 93 from lower Cox Creek. Vagrant

American Pipit

Fairly common to common in winter, most often observed in overflight, but occasionally lands both singly and in large flocks

Cedar Waxwing

Fairly common to abundant in spring and fall (especially at wild grapes) migration, but mostly absent in winter



Fairly common from April-late November, but may occur irregularly in small numbers during the winter

Loggerhead Shrike


Uncommon from late fall-early winter, locally fairly common breeder in small numbers: only three known territories.

European Starling


Abundant resident, more widespread when breeding but apparently not as numerous as habitats near suburban or ag land

Solitary Vireo


Three observations: 14, 25 May 94; 11 Apr 95 (2-3). Probably an uncommon spring migrant, rare in fall

Hutton's Vireo


Common in live oak dominated woodlands, but only fairly common in mid-winter when more difficult to detect

Warbling Vireo


Common spring migrant in both oak and riparian woodlands, apparently less numerous in fall and mostly near water

Orange-crowned Warbler


Common breeder and migrant, probably winters occasionally. Nests in woodlands, mostly riparian and live oak, with shrubs

Nashville Warbler


Common early spring migrant (7 Apr-9 May), uncommon fall migrant.

Yellow Warbler


Locally common breeder, fairly common to common migrant. More widespread in fall

Yellow-rumped Warbler

Abundant and widespread winter resident

Black-throated Gray Warbler

Probably a fairly common migrant, mostly seen in oak woodlands but also seen at Jones Corral in fall (18 Oct).

Townsend's Warbler

One observation 14 May 94; Probably an uncommon spring migrant

Hermit Warbler

One observation 9 May 93 in live oaks along Dry Creek. Probably uncommon migrant in woodland areas

American Redstart

One observation 5 September 92 in riparian vegetation below Pittman Res. Vagrant

MacGillivray's Warbler

Fairly common migrant in riparian areas with a moist, dense understory

Common Yellowthroat


Possible nesting 31 May 95 (1 male). Fairly common migrant in open, marshy riparian areas.

Wilson's Warbler

Common along streams and in live oaks during migration

Yellow-breasted Chat


Common breeder (23 Apr-5 Sep). Suitable nesting habitat probably near saturation

Western Tanager


Fairly common to common spring and fall migrant, most numerous in fall. Seen as early as 8 July

Black-headed Grosbeak


Common in riparian areas but also found in diverse, multi-leveled deciduous woodland -- usually more mesic sites

Lazuli Bunting


Fairly common breeder in riparian areas and in other habitats with scattered shrubs except in dense woodland

Rufous-sided Towhee


Common in winter, fairly common but localized breeder in riparian areas or woodlands with a very dense understory

California Towhee


Fairly common resident in areas with a shrubby understory. Often in more open areas than RSTO but usually near water

Rufous-crowned Sparrow


Common resident except during winter when less conspicuous. Occasionally the most numerous bird in its favored habitat

Chipping Sparrow


Fairly common to common breeder in blue oak woodlands with an open, grassy understory

Brewer's Sparrow

One observation 23 May 93 along lower Cox Creek. Probably a very rare migrant

Vesper Sparrow

Observed 18 Sep 92 (2) in Jones' Exclosure; 20 Mar 93, 14 Sep 94 NE of Waldo bridge. Rare to uncommon migrant, may winter

Lark Sparrow


Fairly common to abundant, but perhaps less numerous than formerly when grazing was heavier

Black-throated Sparrow


Four observed 28 May 94 at Ceanothus Hill. Probable irregular breeder. Also observed 22 Mar 93 from Jones' Exclosure

Savannah Sparrow

Abundant in grassland and weedy areas, especially near cover provided by marshy vegetation

Grasshopper Sparrow


One observation 13 May 94; singing birds in May 93

Fox Sparrow

Uncommon to fairly common in winter near dense riparian areas, more often observed in migration

Song Sparrow


Locally common in winter, very local and in small numbers as a breeder in marshy riparian areas

Lincoln's Sparrow

Abundant (5 Sep- 26 Apr) in weedy grasslands and edges of non-wooded (mostly) riparian areas

Swamp Sparrow

One individual observed from 13 Feb-12 Mar 94 along lower Cox Creek, and again on 22 May at Dry Creek. Vagrant

Golden-crowned Sparrow

Common to abundant winter resident near very dense cover and usually in wooded areas

White-crowned Sparrow

Abundant winter resident in many habitats but rarely far from dense cover

Dark-eyed Junco

Fairly common to common winter resident in blue oak woodlands

Red-winged Blackbird


Abundant resident. Roosts and breeds in marshes and wet grasslands

Tricolored Blackbird


Uncommon in late winter and spring and possible breeder. Flocks usually seen in transit but also feed in grasslands

Western Meadowlark


Abundant; more numerous but usually clumped during winter

Brewer's Blackbird


Fairly common to abundant resident, most often in open disturbed habitats

Brown-headed Cowbird


Common parasitic breeder, rare or absent in winter. Frequents areas with sparse vegetation for feeding

Northern Oriole


Usually ? abundant breeder; one of the most numerous birds in summers 92+93 in riparian areas but also nests in oak woodland

Purple Finch


Rare but probably regular breeder, irregularly fairly common in winter. Adults with three fledglings confirmed nesting

House Finch


Mostly common resident, but fairly common in mid-winter. Relatively limited numbers may reflect lack of residences

Pine Siskin

Irregularly uncommon to common in winter (as 1992-93) and perhaps a rare but regular migrant

Lesser Goldfinch


Common to abundant resident in many habitat types, but mostly near thistles in winter, woodland egdes when breeding

Lawrence's Goldfinch


Uncommon to locally common from at least 14 Mar-18 Jun. Closely associated with water, grit/mineral sources, and fiddleneck

American Goldfinch


Fairly common to common near riparian areas in summer and grasslands in winter. Flocks up to 300 feeding in oaks in spring

Evening Grosbeak

One flock of observed flying over swim hole on 9 Dec 1994. Expected to be irregularly rare in winter

House Sparrow


Three observations: 21 Sept 92 (2); 4 Dec 93; 14 Feb 94 after field trial. Rare dispersing migrant, not suspected of nesting

N = confirmed nester

N* = previously known nester not suspected of nesting during study period

n = strongly suspected nester, many all but confirmed

? = possible nester based on seasonal sightings on SWA, habitat, and general status elsewhere in foothills or valley